PANEL 4 – Framework for Interstate Relations

Concerns over how states interact with and exploit each other’s software and cyber infrastructure have been around since at least the 1960s. From deterrence to cooperation, disagreements in international relations theory and practice about cyber security grow stronger, as progress in understanding the best path forward becomes weaker. On the legal side, understanding how domestic laws apply to cyber security is a difficult task for any state internally, understanding how a state’s cyber actions are governed by international law is even more challenging. This panel will explore the current theoretical and practical gaps in the cyber debate within international relations and evaluate the international legal frameworks applicable to cyberspace.


  • Jon Lindsay (University of Toronto – Munk School of Global Affairs)


  • Ray Boisvert (Ontario provincial security advisor)
  • David Hong (PwC)
  • Sarah McKune (Citizen Lab)
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Jon Lindsay (Moderator)

Jon R. Lindsay is Assistant Professor of Digital Media and Global Affairs at the Munk School of Global Affairs at the University of Toronto. His research focuses on the interaction of emerging technology and global security. He holds a Ph.D. in political science from MIT, an M.S. in computer science from Stanford, and has served as an intelligence officer in the U.S. Navy.

He is the co-author of China and Cybersecurity: Espionage, Strategy, and Politics in the Digital Domain and is completing two books: Shifting the Fog of War: Information Technology and the Politics of Control; and, with Erik Gartzke, Cross-Domain Deterrence: Strategy in an Era of Complexity.

Ray Boisvert (Panelist)

As the Provincial Security Advisor for Ontario, Ray provides advice and intelligence on areas of public safety and national security that fall within provincial responsibility. He supports efforts to protect provincial assets from events that could affect services, networks and facilities that are critical to Ontario’s economy, public safety and security, and engages with key partners on security related matters.

Previously, as President of I-Sec Integrated Strategies (ISECIS), Ray worked with a variety of client organizations to help them gain a deeper understanding of intelligence and security matters in a global context, and the impact on their operating environments. He delivered business intelligence solutions affecting core challenges such as cyber and insider threats, while guiding resilience building around the principles of pro-active defence. He also consulted on Mergers and Acquisitions with potential National Security complexities.

After five years in federal policing, Ray joined the Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) in 1984 and retired in 2012 as the Assistant Director, Intelligence. During his tenure, Ray was involved in broad facets of security intelligence operations, from leadership of the Counter Terrorism domain, to driving national security priorities pertaining to Operational Risk management, Data Exploitation programs, Human Source management, Foreign Collection framework and all Special Operations efforts.

David Hong (Panelist)

David Hong is a Senior Consultant with PwC’s Cybersecurity & Privacy practice in Toronto. David helps organizations protect their business and brand reputation through the effective management of cybersecurity risks. With a focus on cybersecurity strategy & governance, David has advised clients in mining, power & utilities, banking, pensions, asset management & insurance, real estate, public transportation, federal & municipal government, broadcast media, telecommunications, and retail.

David worked as a strategy consultant in Korea prior to joining PwC, and holds an MA in International Security Studies from the Elliott School of International Affairs in Washington DC.

Sarah McKune (Panelist)

Sarah McKune is Senior Legal Advisor to the Citizen Lab at Munk School of Global Affairs, University of Toronto. She is a U.S. lawyer with expertise in international human rights law, intellectual property law, and export controls. Sarah’s work addresses the legal and policy
dimensions of technologies that impact human rights. Her areas of interest include targeted digital threats against civil society, commercial spyware and other dual-use technologies, and international cyber norm development.

Prior to joining the Citizen Lab, she was Law Officer and Special Assistant to the Executive Director at the nongovernmental organization Human Rights in China, where she focused much of her efforts on the counter-terrorism policies and human rights impact of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. Her previous experience also includes work as a litigation associate at the New York office of Morrison & Foerster LLP, and teaching English in China. Sarah received her J.D. from the University of Michigan Law School in 2002.